In order to compensate fluctuations and keep the grid frequency in the European interconnected grid as close as possible to the target value of 50 hertz, we have the following measures at our disposal.
In order to guarantee a reliable and secure electricity supply, the consumption of electrical energy should be equal to the production at any time. The most important indicator for this balance is a constant standard grid frequency of 50 hertz. If too much or too little electricity is fed into the grid, the grid frequency can fluctuate and the electricity supply can be affected. In the worst case, this could result in a power outage.
In order to prevent fluctuations, 50Hertz works with highly precise generation and consumption forecasts. Our system control is capable of implementing market-based measures at all times to balance fluctuations (balancing) and guarantee the stability of the grid, also in extreme conditions (weather changes, power plant outages).
A need for control reserve arises as soon as the current feed-in differs from the current take-off. In other words, when consumption fluctuates or power plants are not operational. The transmission system operators have the task of maintaining the balance between electricity generation and consumption in their grid areas at all times. For the performance of this task, the TSOs need different types of control reserve (primary control reserve, secondary control reserve as well as minute (tertiary control) reserve), which differ according to the principle of activation and their activation speed. Close co-operation between the TSOs contributes to keeping the total requirements for control reserve as low as possible.
Learn more about control reserve here.
When the situation requires it, 50Hertz can disconnect large electricity consumers from the grid or have them lower their output in the short term. However, this only applies to the companies that qualified for this option. The companies are compensated for providing the disconnection potential with a capacity fee. If the disconnection option is actually used, they receive a financial compensation in the form of a kilowatt-hour rate.
Contract partners can find further information here.